Cowpeas can deal well with hot and dry conditions. They have a massive tap root that can reach up to 2.5 meters in depth. Cowpea is also a great Nitrogen fixer.

Compared to other legumes, cowpeas can survive in much more acidic and low fertility soils. Quick growth quickly shade the soil to block out weeds. Its dense residue helps to improve soil texture but breaks quickly in hot weather.

Cowpea is sensitive to cold temperatures.